The 130th Annual Meeting of APHA

3074.0: Monday, November 11, 2002 - Board 4

Abstract #45651

Pepper spray for self-protection program: Its effect on women’s self-esteem, assertiveness, safety needs, psychological empowerment, and their relationship to violence prevention

Ryan A Jones, BA, Health Science, University of Arkansas, 1500 N. Leverett Ave. apt.# 146, Fayetteville, AR 72703, (501)443-5812, and Mary Alice Ramey, MPH, MS, CHES, LRCP, Access to Care, Hometown Health Improvement Project, P.O.Box 296, Elkins, AR 72727-0296.

Violence is a problem deserving significant attention in America according to Healthy People 2010, which has seven objectives pertaining to violence and abusive behavior. Although these goals and objectives do not focus primarily on women, statistics show females to be at a higher risk for violence and abusive behavior than males. Because of physiological and psychological differences between women and men new violence education and prevention approaches have evolved and are already exemplified in Rape Aggression Defense systems, IMPACT, and other less known programs. This study ssought to examine the potential mental, emotional, and social influences programs like these have on women plus examine some psychological explanations for these changes. Using a pretest and posttest we tested for changes in women's self-esteem using the Rosenberg General Self-esteem Scale, assertiveness using a modified Gambrill and Richey Assertion Inventory, the need “safety” in Maslow’s hierarchy and empowerment levels using instruments developed context specific for violence prevention and self-protection. Our treatment is “The Pepper Spray for Self-protection Program” developed and sponsored in a cooperative effort by G-Force and Decisive Action Strategies. This program was developed specifically to empower the participant and models all the exemplary protection courses with an added advantage, a non-lethal self-defense tool. Data was analyzed using SPSS programs including descriptive analysis and correlated ANOVA. Results will be examined and discussed.

Learning Objectives:

  • At the conclusion of the session, the participant (learner) in this session will be able to

    Keywords: Violence Prevention, Self-sufficiency and Empowerment

    Presenting author's disclosure statement:
    Organization/institution whose products or services will be discussed: The pepper spray self-protection program was developed and sponsored in a cooperative effort by G-Force and Decisive Action Strategies.
    I have a significant financial interest/arrangement or affiliation with any organization/institution whose products or services are being discussed in this session.
    Relationship: Safeguard markets and promotes "the pepper spray self-protection program". Ryan Jones is the Director of programs development and Director of Instruction for Safeguard

    Women's Health: An View Across the Lifespan

    The 130th Annual Meeting of APHA