132 Annual Meeting Logo - Go to APHA Meeting Page  
APHA Logo - Go to APHA Home Page

Income, social exclusion and isolation: Implications for health education and promotion

Rhonda Love, PhD1, Miriam Stewart, PhD2, Linda Reutter, PhD3, Dennis Raphael, PhD4, Gerry Veenstra, PhD5, Susan McMurray, MA1, and Edward Makwarimba, PhD2. (1) Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, 12 Queen's Park Crescent West, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada, 416-978-7514, rhonda.love@utoronto.ca, (2) Social Support Research Program, University of Alberta, 5-22University Extension Centre, 8303-112 Street, Edmonton, AB T6G2T4, Canada, (3) Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, 5-10 University Extension Centre, 8303-112 Street, Edmonton, AB T6G 2T4, Canada, (4) School of Health Policy and Management, Atkinson, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada, (5) Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Centre for Health Services and Policy Research,Institute for Health Promotion Research, University of British Columbia, 6303 NW Marine Drive, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada

To examine the impact of income on experiences of social exclusion/inclusion and on isolation/belonging we conducted telephone interviews with 1671 people randomly chosen from 8 neighborhoods in Toronto, Ontario and Edmonton, Alberta. We also conducted face-to-face interviews and focus groups with community members, and group interviews with policy makers, service providers and advocacy groups. Results: A majority of all participants perceive that poverty influences health negatively primarily through material deprivation, and participation in community activities. Higher income people had a higher sense of belonging and were more involved in community associational networks. Loneliness was linked to male gender and low income. Higher participation in community groups was linked to being female, older, wealthier, and better educated. Barriers to participation in community events included: financial constraints, time, being made to feel unwelcome, health, and being unaware of community activities. Low-income people were three times more likely to report health and financial constraints and twice as likely to report being made to feel unwelcome as barriers to participation. Those born outside of Canada were also more likely to feel unwelcome. Regardless of income, structural over individualistic explanations of poverty and structural solutions to poverty were supported. Participants supported structural solutions to increase inclusion and a sense of belonging and supported participatory approaches that engage low-income people in the design of programs and policies. This presentation will address implications for health promotion/education and other health- related policies and programs.

Learning Objectives:

  • At the end of this presentation, the participants will be able to

    Keywords: Social Inequalities, Urban Health

    Presenting author's disclosure statement:
    I do not have any significant financial interest/arrangement or affiliation with any organization/institution whose products or services are being discussed in this session.

    Hot topics in Health Promotion

    The 132nd Annual Meeting (November 6-10, 2004) of APHA