197588 Conducting community-based participatory research using qualitative research methods

Monday, November 9, 2009

Jessi L. Westling, MSPH , Datacorp, Cheyenne, WY
Susan L. Janke, MS , Datacorp, Cheyenne, WY
P. Allison Minugh, PhD , Datacorp, Cheyenne, WY
When conducting community-level research, particularly with minority populations, it is critical that the target population is involved throughout the process. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) incorporates community members throughout all the planning stages, from the needs assessment through implementation of strategies to address identified problems. When applied in a CBPR framework, qualitative research techniques, such as focus groups, allow a community to have a voice. What began as a methamphetamine needs assessment on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation, evolved into a comprehensive substance abuse assessment when it became evident, through focus group sessions, that substance abuse was an extensive community problem. The sessions were facilitated to engage participants in a dynamic conversation about the impact of substance use on individual lives and the community, as well as the assets and strategies the community could use to combat substance abuse. With the use of a qualitative software data analysis program, (QSR NVivo V7), focus group sessions (n=24) were broken down by each aforementioned topic and coded into thematic categories. Focus groups (54%) identified Traditional Ways (i.e. culture, ceremonies, language) as an asset the community has to deal with substance abuse. The focus groups (75%) suggested that a multi-level substance abuse prevention campaign could be one strategy to be implemented. These findings were presented to the Tribal Council and the community. With the needs assessment completed, a strategic plan to combat the generational substance abuse problems on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation is being developed, so the community can begin the healing process.

Learning Objectives:
1. Discuss the importance of community-based participatory research application when working with minority populations. 2. Demonstrate how to conduct focus group sessions that engage participants. 3. Describe methods of analyzing qualitative data.

Keywords: American Indians, Community Research

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: Education 2005-2007 Master of Science in Public Health, Social & Behavioral Health Science University of Hawaii- Manoa 2001-2004 Bachelor of Arts, Sociology Black Hills State University Research Experience 2008-Present Analyst. Datacorp. Acts as project manager on various assessments, evaluations, and grant proposals, including the Fort Hall Methamphetamine Assessment Project and the Casper STOP Act Grant Evaluation. Project manager responsibilities include, but are not limited to: cleaning and analyzing data in SAS and SPSS programming languages; data management; collaborating with Project Directors on study design and execution; writing project updates and reports; contributing to writing proposals, protocols, evaluation plans, research papers, presentations and other deliverables; and preparing data manuals to document data cleaning methods and chronological logs of data cleaning efforts. Acts as a lead analyst on the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grantsí process evaluation data and the National Substance Abuse, Human Immunodefiency Virus, and Hepatitis Initiativeís Cohort 4 & 5 outcome data under the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrationís (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), Data Analysis Coordination and Consolidation Center (DACCC) project. Lead analyst responsibilities include manipulating complex datasets, SPSS and SAS programming, and data management. 2007-2008 Prevention Block Grant Coordinator. WY Department of Health, Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Division. Oversaw 15 substance abuse prevention grants to ensure contractual and program compliance with state prevention standards and federal requirements of the Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment (SAPT) Block Grant under the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Performed administrative duties related to these grants. Wrote the prevention portion of the Federal SAPT Block Grant. Worked closely with the evaluation coordinator to monitor program activities and gather data for performance reporting of National Outcome Measures. Facilitated a research and data analysis workgroup, the Prevention Framework's State Epidemiological Workgroup (SEW). Managed the Prevention Needs Assessment (PNA) contract and worked closely with the PNA PI to ensure maximum participation of Wyoming schools and implementation of innovative and sophisticated surveying procedures. Responsible for writing and upholding Synar compliance section of the Federal SAPT Block Grant to ensure that Wyoming maintained a federally mandated 20% or lower non-compliance rate for underage tobacco sales, which further ensured receipt of this $9 million federal grant. Oversaw all State Methamphetamine Initiative contracts and programs. Planned and facilitated professional trainings and created the training curriculum and materials. 2005-2007 Graduate Research Assistant. University of Hawaii - Manoa, Fun 5: A Physical Activity and Nutrition Program. Responsible for program planning, implementation, and evaluation of the Fun 5 program, which was implemented in 165 elementary schools across the state of Hawaii. Worked together with the Fun 5 program coordinators to develop new education materials and implementation strategies. Conducted literature searches to identify effective strategies and tools the program could utilize. Applied health behavior change theories throughout the program planning and implementation processes. Worked with the Fun 5 program team to organize and facilitate 10-15 trainings every year, with attendance of up to 150 employees at each training. Developed and continually updated evaluation materials. Procured IRB approval for all new evaluation tools. Collected data through on-site observation, self-report surveys, and telephone interviews. Programmed surveys into Teleform. Conducted data entry in Teleform, SPSS, and Excel. Analyzed and interpreted data using SPSS. Constructed formal reports of evaluations to the funding agency. Trained coworkers on how to conduct evaluations and data collection. Trained and supervised one assistant on conducting data entry. 2004-2005 Undergraduate Research Assistant. Black Hills State University, American Indian Health Research Program. Worked with five faculty members to conduct research on the following American Indian health disparities: breast and cervical cancer, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, prenatal care access and use, diabetes, seat belt usage. Completed comprehensive literature reviews and reported findings in a clear, concise manner using tables, graphs, and charts in Power Point. Coordinated survey dissemination to 400 respondents from two tribes in Montana and Wyoming for The American Indian CAHPS multistage health care satisfaction study. Conducted evaluation on a tribal diabetes self-management education program. Created tracking databases in Microsoft Excel for monitoring program integrity. Developed survey data bases and data entry specifications. Performed data entry and data analysis in SPSS. Helped with the development of a cultural competency guide for use in IHS clinics in Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota. Presentations Westling, J.L., & McCurdy, D.K. (2006, November). Generation Sex: STI Education and Prevention. Poster session presented at the American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, Boston, MA. McCurdy, D.K., & Westling, J.L. (2006, November). Promising Approaches for STI Prevention in Women of Color. Poster session presented at the American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, Boston, MA. Westling, J.L., & McCurdy, D.K. (2006, October). Generation Sex: STI Education and Prevention. Presented at the University of Hawaii Public Health Sciences Research Symposium, Honolulu, HI. Westling, J.L. (2004, April). Does a Motherís Cohabitation Have an Effect on her Childís Decision to Cohabitate? Presented at the Black Hills Research Symposium, Spearfish, SD.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.