205712 Despite Mandatory Fortification of Staple Foods, Vitamin D Intakes of Canadian Children and Adults are Inadequate

Tuesday, November 10, 2009: 1:30 PM

Hassan Vatanparast, MD, PhD , College of Pharmacy & Nutrition/School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
Tim Green, PhD , Human Nutrition, University of British Colombia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Mona S. Calvo, PhD , Dept of Health & Human Services, U. S. Food & Drug Administration, Laurel, MD
Susan J. Whiting, PhD , College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
Introduction: Sub-optimal vitamin D status is an emerging health concern. We evaluated vitamin D intakes of Canadians and compared it to American counterparts. Methodology: We used data from Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (n=35107) to determine usual intake of vitamin D from food sources, and food and supplement. Canadians' vitamin D intakes were compared with vitamin D intakes of Americans in corresponding age/gender groups, the latter from NHANES 1999-2000. Results: The mean SD intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8 0.1 g/d, with males 14-18 y having the highest intakes (7.5 0.2 g/d) and females 19-30 y having the lowest intakes (4.7 0.2 g/d). Main food sources were milk products and meat and alternatives contributing to 49 % and 31.1% of dietary vitamin D. Food insecurity influenced vitamin D intake from food. Canadians' vitamin D intakes from food were higher than their American counterparts for males 9-18 y, 51 and over, and females 9-50 y (p<0.05). Discussion: Although most Canadians didn't meet the recommendations for vitamin D intake, they had higher intakes of vitamin D than Americans which may reflect the efficacy of national fortification policies or database differences. In both countries fluid milk is fortified but only in Canada is margarine fortification mandatory. Both countries would benefit by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification.

Learning Objectives:
1.To identify the status of vitamin D intake of Canadians 2.To compare vitamin D intake of Canadians with their American counterparts 3.To recognize the difference in vitamin D fortification policies and nutrient data between US and Canada

Keywords: Nutrition, Vitamins

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I am a researcher in the area of vitamin D and calcium metabolism, with numerous publications concerning dietary intakes and dietary needs of these nutrients. Currently we are using national surveys to determine factors related to intake. I have a PhD in Nutrition and more than 30 years experience in research related to calcium and vitamin D. I am involved in using Canadian national surveys in determining vitamin D status of Canadians.
Any relevant financial relationships? Yes

Name of Organization Clinical/Research Area Type of relationship
Yoplait Vitamin D Sponsors Advisory Group:member of the International Institute for Nutrition and Bone Health
Dairy Farmers of Canada, Amway, IADSA Vitamin D Speaker's bureau and teaching engagements

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.