206895 Association between exposure to particulate matter from sand and gravel industries and respiratory diseases in residents of San Lorenzo, Puerto Rico: A cross sectional study

Monday, November 9, 2009

Annette Marie Pascual Marrero, MPH , School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Jeamarie Pascual Marrero , School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Melissa Marzan Rodriguez , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Mayralis De Jesus Cortes , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Neysari Arana Vizcarrondo , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Amarillys Rodriguez Lopez , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Arnaldo Freire Perez , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Lisette Gaona Barrera , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Waleska Berdecia Maldonado , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Omar Portalatin Santiago , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Leslie Juarbe Rivera , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Carla Toro Colon , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Lizaida Hernandez Ortiz , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Glorymar Rodriguez Berrios , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Aina Calimano Maldonado , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Alma Martinez Quinones , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Miosoti Diaz Aponte , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Sadja Gaud Quintana , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Frances Escalera Maldonado , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Glorilee Delgado Flores , Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR
Gilberto Ramos, DrPH , Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Puerto Rico Graduate School of Public Health, San Juan, PR
Linnette Rodriguez-Figueroa, MS, PhD , Dept. of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Puerto Rico, Graduate School of Public Health, San Juan, PR
Studies have documented increased risks of respiratory diseases (RD) associated with long term exposure to particulate matter, PM. In Puerto Rico, residents from San Lorenzo's communities requested help to validate their concerns about pollution's effects on health. This cross-sectional study developed in response to this request and focuses on RD due to PM exposure from eleven sand and gravel industries. The objective is to evaluate the prevalence of RD among residents living in communities of lower and higher PM exposure. Two independent representative samples were selected from residents living in communities far and close to those industries based on three stage stratified cluster design. A questionnaire administered via personal interview collected data from 681 participants, which included socio-demographic variables, smoking habits, allergies, house characteristics, symptoms, respiratory illnesses diagnosis, and occupational exposures. Prevalence estimates were based on a weighted sample. Logistic regression model evaluated the association and estimated the adjusted prevalence for confounding variables. The response rate was 90.4%. Weighted prevalence for RD was statistically significant (p< 0.05) in higher exposed group: 25.9% rhinitis, 20.3% sinusitis, 3.2% pneumonia and 2.1 % COPD. Adjusting by confounding variables, the odds ratios for respiratory, allergic, and skin diseases was statistically significant (1.71, 2.78 and 2.40 respectively; all p< 0.05). Results suggest the prevalence of RD is significantly higher among residents living in communities of higher PM exposure compared to residents living in lower PM exposed communities (POR= 1.68, 95%CI: 1.571.79). The PM exposure from sand and gravel industries is associated to risk excess of suffering from respiratory, skin and allergic diseases. Recommendations on reducing the risk of developing RD include: modifying house environment, avoiding allergic materials, humidity, dusty rugs and cloth curtains, effective management of current RD and awareness of air quality reports.

Learning Objectives:
Evaluate the prevalence of respiratory diseases among residents living in communities exposed to high and low levels of particulate matter (PM).

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: Previous research and educational experiences
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.