245996 Measuring young novice driver performance in a simulator: A pathway to prevention of motor vehicle crashes

Monday, October 31, 2011

Catherine McDonald, PhD, RN , School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
Jason B. Tanenbaum, MS , The Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
Yi-Ching Lee, PhD , The Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
Flaura K. Winston, MD, PhD , The Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
Background: The morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle crashes involving young people is a global public health crisis. Driver error is a major factor in crashes. Driving simulators can serve as a safe measure of driving performance. Purpose: To analyze the literature on the use of driving simulators for the evaluation of driving performance in young novice drivers. Methods: Systematic review in Pubmed, Compendex, PsychInfo, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar in December 2010 of published English language studies using driving simulators to assess young novice driver performance. Inclusion criteria: drivers ≤24 years of age and ≤ 1 year of driver training or licensure; studies had a distinct young novice driver group; and simulator data used in analysis. Outcomes: Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. The sample contained n=2 validation studies; n=7 observational, including group comparisons (e.g. experienced versus novice) and assessment of the consequences of hazards or distractions; and n=6 assessment of the effects of risk awareness training and performance feedback. Use of eye tracking devices in n=3 studies helped capture driver inattention and hazard perception. Though variables such as speed were often collected, no studies reported on driving performance as a multidimensional outcome for young novice drivers. Conclusions: Few studies examine the utility of simulators for assessment of young driver performance. Published protocols are limited and lack reported reliability and validity evaluations for driving performance as a multidimensional construct. Future research should examine driving performance as a multidimensional construct measured through simulator data and eye tracking data.

Learning Areas:
Conduct evaluation related to programs, research, and other areas of practice
Public health or related nursing
Public health or related research
Social and behavioral sciences

Learning Objectives:
1). Describe how studies from the literature have used driving simulators to evaluate young novice driving performance. 2). Explain the gaps in the science with driving simulators and young novice drivers. 3). Identify high priority future research directions regarding use of simulators to assess young driver performance.

Keywords: Adolescents, International, Motor Vehicles

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I am qualified because my postdoctoral training focuses on the consequences of risky driving behaviors in teens and young adults and the measurement of driving performance with instruments such as driving simulators and eye tracking devices.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.