259126 Ensuring competent health workers at graduation: Summary of the evidence on elements of effective preservice education

Sunday, October 28, 2012

Peter Johnson, CNM, PhD , Global Learning Office, Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD
Linda Fogarty, PhD , Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD
Judith Fullerton, PhD, CNM, FACNM , Independent Consultant, San Diego, CA
Julia Bluestone, CNM , Global Learning Office, Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD
Barbara J. Rawlins, MPH , Jhpiego, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC
Mary Drake, BSN, RN, MPH , Technical Leadership Office, Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD
Leah Hart , Public Health Nursing, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Baltimroe, MD
Marion Subah, MSN, CNM, RNC, FWACN , Rebuilding Basic Health Services, Liberia, Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD
There is a common body of understanding about the elements of preservice education (PSE) that contribute to competent entry-level health workers and which factors most affect competency from graduation to deployment and professional practice. Jhpiego conducted an integrative review of the evidence-based literature to identify what further research is needed to demonstrate the importance of certain elements that are frequently cited as essential to successful PSE programs for health occupations and professions. A total of 1,742 peer-reviewed articles from the year 2000 onwards from multiple databases, including PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL, were identified between January and March of 2011 and reviewed and graded. The categorization scheme was based on the design adopted by Jhpiego for a synthetic review of peer-reviewed, published, articles (systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and program evaluations) that focused on the effectiveness of various teaching/learning approaches used within in-service or continued professional education activities. Additionally, classification of the literature according to Kirkpatrick's four-level model of training evaluation was used as a strategy to affirm that the studies in this review addressed the broader spectrum of process and outcomes of PSE. A conceptual model representing the proposed relationships between PSE, competency and health outcomes was developed. Some expected findings, such as the importance of a competency-based curriculum, student support, and the advantages of alternative learning technologies were confirmed. Evidence-based support for other factors was, surprisingly, very limited. The findings of the literature review and the visual conceptual model that emerged will be presented and discussed.

Learning Areas:
Administer health education strategies, interventions and programs
Other professions or practice related to public health
Program planning
Systems thinking models (conceptual and theoretical models), applications related to public health

Learning Objectives:
1. Describe the process utilized to conduct an integrative literature review on key elements of preservice education 2. Describe the visual conceptual model linking key elements of preservice education, competency and health outcomes 3. Identify where further research is needed to identify key elements to successful preservice education

Keywords: Professional Preparation, Health

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I am the Director of the Jhpiego Global Learning Office and am responsible for overseeing all of our preservice education (PSE)programs, as well as to work with the Monitoring & Evaluation Unit to assess health impact of our PSE programs.
Any relevant financial relationships? Yes

Name of Organization Clinical/Research Area Type of relationship
Jhpiego Not applicable Employment (includes retainer)

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.