271081 Neighborhood social cohesion and safety in low-income Latino neighborhoods in California: How do they impact the health of parents?

Monday, October 29, 2012

Héctor Alcalá, MPH, CPH , Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA
Ami Shah, MPH , UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA
David Grant, PhD , California Health Interview Survey, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, Los Angeles, CA
Melanie Levy , UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood social cohesion and perceptions of safety have been associated with several health behaviors. Specifically, studies have shown that cohesive neighborhoods prevent maladaptive health behaviors and perceptions of safety facilitate healthy behaviors. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in neighborhood-level factors shown to have predicted selected health behaviors in 14 low-income minority communities in California. METHODS: The 2009 California Health Interview Survey oversampled 14 Building Healthy Communities (BHC), a ten-year initiative of The California Endowment. Adults in (n=3,635) were randomly selected to complete this telephone survey if they lived one of the 14 BHC communities and were age 18-40 or a parent/guardian of a child age 0-17. 12 neighborhoods were majority Latino. Neighborhood factors of social cohesion and perceptions of safety were examined as predictors of binge drinking (BD), regular physical activity (RPA), and obesity using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: In models with social cohesion, perceived neighborhood safety and age, neither cohesion nor perceived safety were significant predictors of RPA (AOR=0.96, p=.49; AOR=0.83, p=.35), BD (AOR=0.93, p=.40; AOR=1.10, p=.63) or obesity (AOR=1.07, p=.22; AOR=1.34, p=.11). After controlling for socio-demographics, acculturation, insurance status, health factors and site, neighborhood social cohesion and perceived neighborhood safety were not significant predictors of RPA (AOR=0.96, p=.30; AOR=0.69, p=.08), BD (AOR=1.0, p=.85; AOR=1.10, p=.58) or obesity (AOR=1.05, p=.27; AOR=1.29, p=.17). CONCLUSIONS: Social cohesion and perceptions of safety were not predictive of BD, RPA, or obesity rates, even after adjusting for various socio-demographic factors, suggesting that other factors may influence poor health behaviors in low income Latino neighborhoods.

Learning Areas:
Chronic disease management and prevention
Diversity and culture

Learning Objectives:
1. Articulate how neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood safety relate to health. 2. Identify health disparities in low-SES communities. 3. Describe risk factors predicting obesity, binge drinking and physical activity in parents living in low SES neighborhoods.

Keywords: Latino, Low-Income

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: My primary research interest is health disparities in chronic disease. I have spent several years as a research assistant on a study that attempted to explain sex differences in obesity, stress response and drug withdrawal. During the past year I have been involved in the creation of neighborhood health profiles involving the communities in this abstract.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.