271491 Dietary Patterns characterized by low Meat and Dairy products are associated with a lower Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome and its component Risk Factors

Tuesday, October 30, 2012 : 9:35 AM - 9:50 AM

Nico Rizzo, PhD, med Dr , School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA
Gary Fraser, PhD; MD , Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA
Joan Sabate, MD, MPH , School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA
Background: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide. In the US it is approaching 30%. The identification of dietary factors that may help in the prevention of the MetS becomes thus an important goal.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate associations between dietary patterns specified by meat and dairy intake with the MetS and its component factors. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 1278 subjects (mean age 63 years) with a complete set of data from the Adventist Health Study 2. Subjects were classified as non-vegetarian, semi vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian and strict vegetarian. ANCOVA was used to determine associations between dietary pattern and metabolic risk factors (HDL, triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure, and waist circumference) while controlling for relevant co-factors. Logistic regression was used in calculating odds ratios (OR) for MetS and its component factors.

Results: The OR for high waist circumference was halved for pesco vegetarians (OR=0.49, CI=0.32-0.73) and semi vegetarians (OR=0.49, CI=0.36-0.67) and reduced by two thirds for strict vegetarians (OR=0.32, CI=0.19-0.55). The OR for high blood pressure was reduced by half for lacto-ovo vegetarians (OR=0.53, CI=0.39-0.72) and the OR of high glucose levels was significantly reduced in lacto-ovo vegetarians (OR=0.64, CI=0.45-0.92) and strict vegetarians (OR=0.42, CI=0.22-0.78). Strict vegetarian had the lowest risk for MetS (OR=0.33, CI=0.17-0.61) followed by lacto-ovo vegetarians (OR=0.65, CI=0.47-0.90).

Conclusions: Dietary patterns characterized by lower intakes of animal products are associated with a lower metabolic risk profile and may thus contribute in the prevention of the MetS.

Learning Areas:
Chronic disease management and prevention

Learning Objectives:
1. Define the Metabolic Syndrome and its component factors. 2. Discuss the importance of differentiating dietary patterns. 3. Compare the associations between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome and its component factors. 4. Evaluate the possible impact of diet and diet patterns in the prevention of disease.

Keywords: Chronic Diseases, Nutrition

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I have conducted and published research on metabolic risk factors and their associations with lifestyle factors such as physical activity, cardio-respiratory fitness, diet and other factors in large publicly funded cohort studies in the U.S. and Europe. My research interests include the etiology of cardio-metabolic disease and epigenetics.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.

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