Gale A. Spencer, PhD, RN

Distinguished Teaching Professor & Decker Endowed Chair in Community Health
Binghamton University
Binghamton, NY
USA Email:

Disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I have been a faculty member for over 35 years in Community/Public Health Nursing. I have also been working on a project with Florence Margai at Professor in our Medical Geography Dept. at the University. I have also researched and published on the effect of place (urban, rural & suburban) and Public/Community Helth Care.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.