A Systematic Review of Hand Hygiene Practices Among Healthcare Workers Worldwide and Policy Implications
Methods: We searched five computer-based literature indexes - Medline (PubMed), PSYCINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Web of Science Core Collection to identify relevant peer-reviewed publications. We used the Critical Appraisals Skills Programme to evaluate the quality of research. We extracted, synthesized, and meta-summarized themes to integrate the interpretations for better practice.
Results: Use of individual criteria was more likely than hand hygiene guidelines. Lack of resources was a greater barrier in developing countries. Self-protection motivated higher compliance than reducing cross infection. Among new healthcare workers, work-site norm had more influence on compliance than previous training or education. Positive peers, supervisors, role models, and regular audits or performance feedback facilitated long-term compliance.
Conclusions: Achieving optimal hand hygiene compliance is a complex challenge that benefits from developing a positive practice norm. Adequate infection control policy or resource planning could improve population health at healthcare facilities worldwide.
Learning Areas:Administer health education strategies, interventions and programs
Public health or related organizational policy, standards, or other guidelines
Social and behavioral sciences
Identify interpersonal, environment, social behavioral, and system factors associated with hand hygiene compliance. Discuss policy implications for better practice.
Keyword(s): Public Health Infrastructure, Epidemiology
Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I have been a faculty of health sciences and completed a series of research projects focusing on clinical epidemiology, health disparities, health services, health systems, and healthcare workforce studies to improve population health.
Any relevant financial relationships? No
I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.