Online Program

Emerging and Reemerging Neglected Tropical Diseases: Review of Key Characteristics and Risk Factors

Wednesday, November 4, 2015 : 8:30 a.m. - 8:43 a.m.

Timothy Mackey, MAS, PhD, Dept of Anesthesiology, UC San Diego - School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA
Bryan Liang, MD, JD, PhD, School of Medicine (UCSD),, Global He, San Diego, CA
Raphael Cuomo, M.P.H., C.P.H., Family Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA
Ryan Hafen, MD, UC San Diego - School of Medicine, San Diego, CA
Dan Lee, MD, PhD, UC San Diego - School of Medicine
Kimberly Brouwer, PhD, Division of Global Public Health, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA
Background:  In global health, critical challenges have arisen from infectious diseases. This includes emergence and re-emergence accelerated by rapid human development, including numerous changes in demographics, populations and the environment. Within this context, neglected tropical diseases have historically lacked adequate attention leading to insufficient prevention and treatment options. Yet NTDs that are also categorized as emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases (“EReNTDs”) may represent an even more serious threat not adequately examined for unique risk characteristics.

Methods:  We conducted a literature review by searching PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases to review the scientific literature for discussion of EReNTD subject areas. We also conducted general Google search engine inquiries using key words associated with EReNTD and supplemented the peer-review literature with information from news reports, press releases, organization websites, and program and intervention descriptions.

Findings:  Five specific EReNTDs that fit both the WHO’s definition of an NTD and the CDC’s classification as an EID/ReID were identified: dengue, Chagas Disease, cysticercosis, human African trypanosomiasis, and rabies. Compared with the broader category of NTDs, EReNTDs present additional risks as they pose a “dual” threat given they are spreading and emerging in previously non-endemic areas and are also “neglected”. Specifically, the spread of EReNTDs is accelerated by ever increasing globalization, travel, trade, as well as environmental factors, climate change, population growth, migration, and urbanization.

Discussion:  The clinical, socio-economic, and environmental factors associated with EReNTDs reveal a sharing of many important characteristics warranting detailed discussion. These common risk factors include: vector-related risk factors; disease-related risks; drug treatment and development challenges; social determinants of health-related risk factors; environmental/climate change risk factors; and disease control-related challenges. Primarily, the diseases within the EReNTD category are largely widespread impacting millions worldwide; disproportionately affect impoverished, resource-poor communities; and recently have spread to other higher income country settings through migration-international trade/travel.

Learning Areas:

Environmental health sciences
Public health or related public policy

Learning Objectives:
Identify the subset of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that also classify as emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases which we classify as "emerging and re-emerging NTDs" (aka "EReNTDs") Describe common characteristics and risk factors associated with EReNTDs Discuss applicable stakeholders in the NTD policy environment that can address EReNTDs

Keyword(s): International Health, Public Health Policy

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I hold a masters degree in health policy law and also a PhD in Global Public Health. I am a co-author on several peer-review manuscripts on global health policy and have also given oral presentations at several international and domestic public health conferences including APHA. I am also the current program chair of the trade and health forum.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.