Online Program

Using social cognitive theory to predict intention to smoke in middle school students

Tuesday, November 3, 2015

Garrett Miller, School of Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH
Manoj Sharma, MBBS, MCHES, Ph.D., Behavioral and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Jackson State University and Walden University, Jackson, MS
David Brown, Ed.D., MA, Department of Behavioral and Environmental Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS
Mohammad Shahbazi, PhD, MPH, MCHES, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS
Background: High smoking rates among youth continue to be a public health problem.  The initiation of smoking usually starts around middle school. It is important to understand the determinants of smoking in this age group.  Therefore the purpose of this study was to use social cognitive theory to predict the frequency and intention for not smoking among middle school students.

Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design (n=163). The sample size was calculated apriori using G*Power. A valid and reliable 38-item questionnaire was developed with the help of a panel of six experts. The constructs of social cognitive theory reified in the study were expectations (multiplicative score of outcome expectations and outcome expectancies), self-efficacy for not smoking, self-efficacy in overcoming barriers for not smoking, self-control for not smoking, environment, and emotional coping. The Cronbach’s alpha for all subscales was found to be over 0.70.

Results: A majority of respondents were nonsmokers (97.5%). Frequency for smoking was predicted by environment not supportive to smoking (p < 0.000) and emotional coping for not smoking (p < 0.001) and the model accounted for 20% of the variance. Intent to smoke was predicted by emotional coping for not smoking (p < 0.000), environment not supportive to smoking (p < 0.001), expectations for not smoking (p < 0.003), and self-control for not smoking (p < 0.017) and the model accounted for  36% of the variance.

Conclusions: Social cognitive theory is a robust model for predicting smoking behavior and must be utilized in interventions.

Learning Areas:

Administer health education strategies, interventions and programs
Assessment of individual and community needs for health education
Implementation of health education strategies, interventions and programs
Planning of health education strategies, interventions, and programs
Social and behavioral sciences

Learning Objectives:
Describe the process of developing an instrument based on social cognitive theory for predicting smoking behavior in middle school students. Design an intervention based on social cognitive theory for preventing smoking initiation in middle school students.

Keyword(s): Tobacco Use, Adolescents

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: The first author is unable to present due to conflict in his schedule. I have supervised this research and am thus presenting it. I have several years of experience with such research.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.