Effect of Exposure to Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages on Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Smoking among Young Adults
methods: A two-session web-based study was conducted with 18-25 year olds (N=2192). During the first session, demographics, smoking behavior, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking were assessed. The second session contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, (1) packages with the proposed graphic image plus text warning, (2) packages with the text warning only, or (3) packages with the current U.S Surgeon General’s warning, and post-exposure measures. ANCOVAs were conducted to test the effect of package condition on implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking, controlling for baseline attitudes.
results: Current smokers who viewed the packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward smoking compared to smokers in the other two package conditions. Smokers and non-smokers who viewed the packages with graphic images plus text warnings or the packages with text warnings only demonstrated more negative explicit attitudes toward smoking compared to those who viewed packages with the current U.S. Surgeon General’s warning.
conclusions: The graphic health warnings were the most effective in influencing young adult smokers’ implicit attitudes toward smoking. Given the role that implicit attitudes play in predicting smoking behavior, this study’s findings have policy implications.
Learning Areas:Public health or related laws, regulations, standards, or guidelines
Public health or related public policy
Public health or related research
Social and behavioral sciences
Describe the effect of exposure to the FDA's proposed set of graphic warnings on cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking among young adults.
Keyword(s): Tobacco Control
Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I am an investigator on federally and state funded grants and contracts related to tobacco prevention and cessation.
Any relevant financial relationships? No
I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.