A Systematic Review to Understand What we Know about Implicit Racial/Ethnic Bias and Healthcare Outcomes
Methods: A systematic review conducted consistent with PRISMA standards was conducted to ascertain what was known and unknown in the implicit bias and health care provision literature. Ten bibliographic databases were searched yielding 105 records. Following duplicate removal and screening, 15 studies were included for review.
Results: Almost all studies used cross-sectional designs, convenience sampling, U.S. participants, and the Implicit Association Test to assess implicit racial/ethnic bias. Most studies examined Black vs. White bias. Few studies examined Latino/a vs. White bias. Approximately 80% of providers displayed implicit bias against Black and/or Latino/a Americans vs. White Americans. Findings on providers’ implicit racial/ethnic bias and healthcare outcomes were mixed. More significant associations were found for outcomes related to patient-provider relationships as opposed to outcomes related to treatment processes or patient health outcomes.
Conclusions: Most healthcare providers have pro-White implicit bias. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methods to examine associations between implicit bias and healthcare outcomes.
Learning Areas:Diversity and culture
Provision of health care to the public
Social and behavioral sciences
Explain how implicit racial/ethnic bias may contribute to disparities in healthcare. Describe the methodological limitations of studies that have examined implicit racial/ethnic bias among healthcare professionals. Discuss the substantive findings of studies examining the prevalence of implicit bias among healthcare providers and associations between implicit bias and healthcare outcomes, including patient-provider relationships and interactions, treatment processes, and patient health outcomes.
Keyword(s): Health Disparities/Inequities, Minority Health
Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I have worked on multiple foundation and NIH funded grants. I have 10 years of research experience in the area of minority health, health disparities, and health equity.
Any relevant financial relationships? No
I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.