Online Program

GIS and area deprivation: An approach to neighborhood level population health management

Wednesday, November 4, 2015 : 8:30 a.m. - 8:50 a.m.

Andrew Maroko, PhD, Lehman College, Department of Health Sciences, City University of New York (CUNY), Bronx, NY
Deborah Viola, PhD, Center for Regional Healthcare Innovation, Westchester Medical Center
Thao Doan, MPH, School of Health Sciences and Practice and Institute of Public Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY
Shirley Yang, BSME, MPH candidate, Hunter College, CUNY / CUNY School of Public Health, New York, NY
Megan Hubel, MPH candidate, Lehman College, CUNY / CUNY School of Public Health, Bronx, NY
Background: It has been shown that neighborhood-level characteristics can often influence health outcomes. This suggests that primary care providers should also be cognizant of a patient’s neighborhood environment in order to provide the best treatment, inclusive of preventive care. However this can be a challenge with respect to the ease of access, interpretation, operationalization, and generalizability of this neighborhood data.

Objective/Purpose: To determine the relationship between an area deprivation index and selected health outcomes at the regional (Hudson Valley, NY) and local (e.g., county) levels and to propose a simple method of disseminating this data along with potential resources interactively.

Methods: Using a geographic information science (GIS) framework, we examined the Area Deprivation Index (ADI), developed by Singh and updated by Kind, which is freely accessible and available for the entire United States. The measure represents the socioeconomic deprivation of these areas using 17 census markers. Regional (Hudson Valley, NY), and local (e.g., county-wide) analyses were performed by correlating ADI values with selected hospitalization rates (cardiovascular disease, substance abuse, and asthma). This multi-scale look was done in order to examine local variation in correlations as well as to better reflect primary care and county social services availability. Spatial data was then transformed into easily accessible Google Earth files to provide interactive ability.

Results: Regional ADI value rankings concealed some important local variation in the ADI/health relationships.

Discussion/Conclusions: Presenting neighborhood-level characteristics may help providers understand the relative deprivation and risk experienced by the patient based on potential influences of the social and built environments, otherwise referred to as the broader determinants of health. Incorporating this information with health data, utilization, and costs available from claims databases will provide even richer datasets for analytics, public health surveillance, allocation of community resources, and overall population health management.

Learning Areas:

Provision of health care to the public

Learning Objectives:
Differentiate between regional and local area deprivation in terms of its relationship with health outcomes. Describe the relationship between area deprivation and selected health outcomes in the study area Describe the utility of providing primary care providers with neighborhood deprivation data Discuss a proposed method to make area deprivation index information available

Keyword(s): Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I have worked in health geography extensively and published numerous scholarly articles related to health disparity/inequity, accessibility, and exposure (physical and social).
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.