Online Program

Relationships between long-term high-fat diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese Chinese

Sunday, November 1, 2015

Zaixing Shi, MS, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY
Background: Dietary fat restriction is considered important for overweight or obese individuals to reduce the cardiometabolic risks. However, evidence regarding this relationship remains preliminary.

Objective: We aimed to assess the relationships between long-term high-fat diet (HFD) and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese Chinese adults.

Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included1,485 non-diabetic Han Chinese who were ≥ 40 years old and had a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey, of which 347 individuals with long-term HFD (≥ 30% of energy from fat in 2004 and 2009), and 288 with long-term low-fat diet (LFD; < 30% of energy from fat in 2004 and 2009) were identified. We measured and compared the serum biochemical marker levels between the two groups using fasting blood samples in 2009, and analyzed the associations between HFD and cardiometabolic risk factors using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: The HFD group had higher mean fasting glucose (97.7 vs. 94.8 mg/dL, p=0.02), fasting insulin (13.0 vs. 12.3 mIU/L, p=0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; 3.1 vs. 2.9, p=0.02), total cholesterol (TC; 201.4 vs. 193.9 mg/dL, p=0.02), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 128.9 vs. 119.6 mg/dL, p<0.01), and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 51.3 vs. 53.1 mg/dL, p=0.15) than the LFD group. Logistic regression analyses showed that HFD was significantly associated with increased risk of hyperglycemia (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.12-3.07), insulin resistance (OR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.39-2.80), high TC (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.90-1.72), and high LDL (OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.13-2.22), after adjusting for age, sex, total daily calories intake, smoking, drinking, and education. Individuals with HFD were more likely to have ≥ 3 abnormalities in the following cardiometabolic risk factors: blood pressure, fasting glucose, TC, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride (OR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.12-2.13).

Conclusions: Long-term HFD was associated with increased cardiometabolic risks and their clustering in an overweight or obese Han Chinese population. Habitual dietary fat restriction might be an effective method to lower the cardiometabolic risks for overweight or obese individuals.

Learning Areas:

Advocacy for health and health education
Chronic disease management and prevention
Planning of health education strategies, interventions, and programs
Social and behavioral sciences

Learning Objectives:
Compare the levels of cardiovascular risk factors, and the risk of abnormalities in these factors between individuals with long-term high-fat diet and those with long-term low-fat diet.

Keyword(s): Nutrition, Heart Disease

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I am a doctoral student in epidemiology with a focus on the epidemiology of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in Asian population. Currently I'm in the process of developing my dissertation, and the relationship of diet and cardiovascular/metabolic diseases has interested me. I conceived, analyzed and drafted this abstract.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.