Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease among anti-retroviral therapy naïve HIV positive people in India
HIV induced endothelial dysfunction leads to premature atherosclerosis which may manifest as peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of lower limbs. Studies are not available on prevalence of PAD among antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV infected population. Our objective was to explore the prevalence of PAD among HIV seropositive cases, and to determine relation of PAD with HIV infectivity and its correlation with CD4 count.
This hospital based cross sectional study included 100 newly diagnosed HIV seropositive ART naïve cases (age 20-49 years) and 100 age and sex matched HIV seronegative controls. PAD was diagnosed by Doppler study of lower limb arteries.
Proportion of PAD was significantly more among HIV infected cases (71%) in comparison to HIV negative controls (p <0.001). Among the cases of PAD, 53% (38/71) patients were asymptomatic. Active tuberculosis was present in 25% (18/71) of HIV infected PAD patients. The mean CD4 count among the HIV positive PAD cases was 220 cells/ dl. HIV sero-positivity was found to be significantly associated with development of PAD. Male gender, concurrent tuberculosis and low CD4 count came out to be associated to PAD among HIV sero-positive cases in multivariate analysis.
Proportion of symptomatic and asymptomatic PAD was high in the ART naïve HIV-infected cases of relatively younger age group. HIV infected patients should undergo evaluation for lower limb peripheral arterial diseases in appropriate background. Larger population based prospective study involving HIV seropositive patients would enlighten the temporal association of PAD and other cardiovascular morbidities.
Learning Areas:Clinical medicine applied in public health
Public health or related research
Assess the effect of HIV to develop peripheral arterial disease.
Keyword(s): Epidemiology, Case Management
Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I have been principal and co-investigators of NIH, US funded and Government of India funded project for epidemiological studies in HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases. My special interest is to work among marginalised HIV positive people in India.
Any relevant financial relationships? No
I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.