Online Program

Injury hazard assessment in school environment in Karachi, Pakistan

Monday, November 2, 2015

Uzma Rahim Khan, MBBS, MSc Epidemiology and Biostatistics, PhD candidate, Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
Rubaba Naeem, MSc, Aga Khan University, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
Nukhba Zia, MBBS, MPH, Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
Asher Feroze, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Junaid Abdul Razzak, MD, PhD, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

About 7% of all childhood injuries in low-income countries occur in schools; however little is known about the injury hazards in school environment. The objective was to develop and pilot a school hazard assessment tool in Karachi, Pakistan.


The study was conducted from March–June 2013 and included public and private schools in Karachi. The schools were divided into three categories based on the age of the child; kindergarten (<5 years), primary (5–10 years) and secondary (11–17 years). These hazard observations in school environment were done by trained data collectors.


Of the 167 schools approached, hazard assessment was done in 107 (64.07%) schools. About a quarter (26%) of classrooms had broken furniture and 19.8% had nails in furniture. In 50.9% of schools, playground surface was of concrete. About 22.7% of children from kindergarten, 27.1% from primary and 31.2% from secondary school were not supervised during recess. About 28.3% schools had low-height of corridor walls, while 60.4% schools had open wires in electrical switches. In 14.2% of schools there were cleaning chemicals in toilets within the reach of children. There were stray dogs within schools (22.4%) and in 40.4% schools students bunk classes and go outside during school timings.


This was the first time that injury school environment risks tool was developed and piloted in the context of Pakistan. There was a significant burden of hazards present in the school environment representing an important opportunity for injury prevention.

Learning Areas:

Public health or related research

Learning Objectives:
Describe and pilot a school hazard assessment tool in Karachi, Pakistan

Keyword(s): Child Health

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I am Senior Instructor Research and PhD candidate with focus on childhood injuries. have been affiliated with the field of injury research for past 8 years and have worked to assess childhood injury risks at homes and in schools.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.