Online Program

Salt Intake and Blood Pressure among School Children in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

Tuesday, November 3, 2015 : 8:30 a.m. - 8:50 a.m.

Babajide Daini, MPH, Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria
Ikeoluwa Ajayi, Epidemiology, Medical Statistics and Environmental health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria
Background: The relationship between obesity/overweight, salt intake and Blood Pressure (BP) has been observed recently among children in developed countries. Due to the current epidemiological transition, it became necessary to find out if this pattern exists in a developing country. Thus the aim of the study to assess the association between salt intake and BP by weight status among school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a total of 327 school children aged 8-17 years was carried out. Anthropometric measures, BP and spot urine samples were obtained from all participants. Urine samples were analysed by flame photometric method. Data were analysed using summary statistics, Linear and Logistic regression was used to assess association between sodium intake and blood pressure and risk for pre-hypertension and hypertension (Pre-HBP/HBP).

Results: Mean age of participants was 13.58±1.93 years. They consumed an average of 2713mg/day of Sodium, with 67% having intake above WHO recommended ≤2300mg/day. 17.2 % were Overweight/Obese. The prevalence of pre-HBP and HBP in the study were 28.4% and 9.5% respectively, and dietary pattern (fast food and soft drink consumption) was associated with high sodium intake and BP. Mean adjusted SBP increased progressively with sodium intake quartile from 104.2mmHg to 114.7mmHg overall (P<0.001) and from 108.1mmHg to 121.0mmHg among those overweight/obese (P=0.003). Adjusted odds ratio comparing risk for pre-HBP/HBP among participants in the highest versus lowest sodium intake quartile were 2.1 (95% CI: 0.86-5.29) overall and 2.9 (95% CI: 1.48-8.03) among those overweight/obese. Sodium intake and weight status had synergistic effects on risk for Pre-HBP/HBP (Relative excess risk for interaction=0.24)

Conclusions: The findings corroborates the association between high salt intake and hypertension and this may be stronger among those overweigh/obese. Therefore a need to initiate salt reduction programme and promote school based interventions to improve healthier dietary choices and increased levels of physical activity among school children in Nigeria.

Learning Areas:

Public health or related research

Learning Objectives:
Assess the pattern of salt (sodium) intake among secondary school children in Ibadan, Southern-Nigeria. Demonstrate the joint effect of sodium intake and weight status on risk of HBP among secondary school children.

Keyword(s): Nutrition, Children and Adolescents

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I have carried out an independent research in the field of Public Health as a trained Human Nutritionist and have undergone a research based postgraduate training in Epidemiology. My research interests have mainly centred around nutritional assessment and modulation in non-communicable diseases especially among Children and Adolescents.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.