Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) approach in reducing robberies. Methods: CPTED evaluations were obtained through Cochrane Collaboration search strategies. Two sets of inclusion criteria were used: 16 primary studies evaluated a CPTED program with a comparison period; 12 secondary studies presented some evidence of CPTED effects but were not required to have the same level of scientific rigor. The percentage change in events pre- and post- intervention was the outcome examined. Studies were stratified by programs implementing multiple components, a single component, and through ordinances. Results: All primary multiple-component CPTED programs experienced a percentage change in robberies ranging from -84% to -30%. Single-component program effects ranged from -83% to +91% and ordinances ranged from -65% to +130%. Secondary studies reported robbery changes ranging between -92% and +7.6%. Robbery reductions were larger for interventions comprising basic store design, cash control and training components compared to those including equipment systems. No associations were found between robbery decreases and either the follow-up period or the number of program components. Studies examining non-fatal injuries found a median pre-post change of -61%; those examining homicides found changes ranging from 0 to +11%. Conclusion: The broad nature of the CPTED approach allows its adaptation to many settings, and results indicate this as an effective approach to reducing robbery. However, most interventions were not evaluated independently of other factors contributing to robbery risk. More research is needed on individual components and effects in various business settings.
Learning Objectives: 1. Summarize the effectiveness of CPTED programs in reducing robberies in retail establishments. 2. Recognize the methodologic limitations of existing documents that evaluate CPTED programs. 3. Discuss how the CPTED model is applicable to retail environments. 4. Identify the benefits of implementing CPTED-based programs into businesses at high risk of violence
Keywords: Occupational Safety, Violence Prevention
Presenting author's disclosure statement:
Organization/institution whose products or services will be discussed: None
I do not have any significant financial interest/arrangement or affiliation with any organization/institution whose products or services are being discussed in this session.
The 128th Annual Meeting of APHA