Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of economic transition on the health and nutrition status of Estonian urban and rural preschool children. Methods: In 1996, 2 independent samples of 3- and 4-year-old ethnically Estonian children (n=280, urban 117, rural 163) were compared in a cross-sectional study design. Evaluation included physical and dental examinations, anthropometric measurements, capillary blood test, 24-hour dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire, 3-day food diary and household characteristics questionnaire. Results: Z scores for rural children were significantly lower for weight-for-age (WAZ) and height-for-age (WHZ) although mean Z-scores for both groups were >0.0. Anemia rates were high (median hemoglobin: rural 11.9 g/dl vs urban 11.1 g/dl) with more prevalent iron deficiency in urban children. A considerable proportion of children had intakes below 2/3 Recommended Dietary Allowance(RDA)/Adequate Intake (AI) for calories (rural 25% vs. urban 20%), iron (rural 40% vs. urban 36%), vitamins C (rural 61% vs. urban 23%) and D (rural 87% vs. urban 98%), rural children showing greater deficits for a greater number of nutrients. Many families in both locations felt economically vulnerable, substantially more rural families living in poverty (rural 70% vs. urban 8%). Conclusions: Transition to a market economy is difficult for most Estonian families with small children, but the effects as evidenced by dietary deficits are greater on rural families who have lower incomes, higher unemployment.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the session, the participant in this session will be able to: 1. Recognize health consequences and nutritional deficits experienced by Estonian preschoolers during the post-transition period. 2. Recognize how these consequences were experienced differently by rural and urban children. 3. Develop an awareness of the risk factors experienced during the political transition which contributed to these outcomes
Keywords: Dietary Assessment, Food Security
Presenting author's disclosure statement:
Organization/institution whose products or services will be discussed: None
I do not have any significant financial interest/arrangement or affiliation with any organization/institution whose products or services are being discussed in this session.
The 128th Annual Meeting of APHA