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203316 A revised Aquatic Hazard Assessment of Bisphenol A: Evidence that current risk models may not be sufficiently protective
Wednesday, November 11, 2009: 1:06 PM
Bisphenol A, a xenoestrogen which is an agonist of the estrogen receptor has been identified in surface waters. The primary route of BPA contamination in aquatic environments is through wastewater treatment plants effluents. Despite its biodegradability and short half life, BPA has been implicated in various ecological and human health endpoints including; survival, growth and development, reproductive success, infertility, impaired reproduction, precocious puberty, endometriosis and production of breast, vaginal, prostate, and uterine cancer. With this background, an aquatic hazard assessment of BPA was conducted using the weight of evidence approach. These studies yielded “no observed effect concentrations” (NOEC's) ranging from 0.002 µg/L to 8,400 µg/L and “lowest observed effect concentrations” (LOEC's) ranging from 0.048 µg/L to 12,500 µg/L for various species of aquatic receptors including fishes, invertebrates and algae. This toxicity dataset suggests that adverse health effects from BPA exposure for species specific aquatic receptor mortality, growth and development and reproduction begin at concentrations that are environmentally relevant and within the range (0.0005µg/L to 8µg/L) reported in surface waters around the world. Calculations yielded a refined “predicted no effect concentration” (PNEC) of 0.06 µg/L, which is reasonable as the most sensitivity to BPA is reported at 0.048 µg/L. This suggests that aquatic species are at risk at currently found BPA environmental exposure concentrations. Public health implications of this outcome imply BPA exposure could increase bioaccumulation, deplete fish stocks and impact the food chain affecting the availability of fish for human consumption and increasing human exposure to BPA via fish ingestion.
Keywords: Environmental Health, Environmental Exposures
Presenting author's disclosure statement:
Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: This work was done a part of my dissertation thesis for a PhD degree at the Graduate School of Public Health in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health at the University of Pittsburgh. I have over 15 years experience performing environmental risk assessments which include hazard assessments. Listed below are papers I have authored/co-authored or presentations I have given at various conferences:
• Maxine Wright-Walters and Conrad Volz. Exposure of aquatic receptors to Bisphenol A: Evidence that current risk models may not be sufficiently protective. Ohio River Basin Conference, Pittsburgh,2008.
• Maxine Wright-Walters and Conrad Volz. Pharmaceutical Estrogens and Xeno Estrogens in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants: Implications for Wildlife and Humans. Third National Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. North Carolina A&T State University on September, 2007.pp.80. Abstracts Issue.
• Maxine Wright-Walters and Conrad Volz. Pharmaceutical Estrogens and Xeno Estrogens in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants: Implications for Wildlife and Humans. [Accepted for Publication, September 2007- Springer].
• Volz, CD., Dabney, B.,Cohen, P., Cude, C., Dooly, I., Kyprianou, R., Malecki, K., Richter, W., Schulman, A., Shaw, S., Vanderslice, J., Walters, M., and Vyas, V., September 2007. Handling Left Censored Water Contaminant Data for Descriptive Statistics and (CDC), Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHT) from the Water Working Group, Non-Detect Subgroup.
• R.S. Carruth; M. Wright-Walters; N. B. Sussman; B.D. Goldstein. The Use of Relative Risk Greater Than 2.0 in the American Court System. August 2004. International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) Conference Proceedings, New York, NY.
• Maxine M. Wright-Walters, Nancy B. Sussman, Roger S. Day, Russellyn S. Carruth and Bernard D. Goldstein An Alternative Approach to Determining the Legal Criterion of “More likely than Not” in the Absence of Statistical Significance December 2004. Society of Risk Analysis (SRA) Conference Proceedings, Baltimore, MD.
• Charles Tomljanovic, Maxine Wright-Walters & Jules Stephensky Anthropogenic Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) and Cancer: A Perspective. “Risk: Health Safety & Environment “- Vol 8. Pp 287-289. Summer 1997.
I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.