142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition

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A Naturalistic Study of Carbon Monoxide, Heart Rate, Oxygen Saturation, and Perfusion Index in Hookah Bar Patrons

142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (November 15 - November 19, 2014): http://www.apha.org/events-and-meetings/annual
Monday, November 17, 2014 : 1:30 PM - 1:50 PM

Mary P. Martinasek, PhD, MPH, CHES, CPH , Department of Health Science and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Tampa, FL
Allison Calvanese, BS , Department of Health Science and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Tampa, FL
Katelyn Bentley , Biology, University of Tampa, Tampa, FL
Shaylin French , Biology, University of Tampa, Tampa, FL
Michael Lamacchia, Student , Public Health, University of Tampa, Tampa, FL
Background: Exposure to high levels of carbon monoxide (CO) is a result of hookah smoking.  CO has over 200 times the affinity for hemoglobin thereby disabling oxygen uptake. Increased carbon monoxide and low levels of oxygen have deleterious physiological effects on the body and lead to unnecessary emergency room visits.

Methods: Assessments of exhaled CO,  CO pulse oximetry readings, heart rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and perfusion index (P.I.) were conducted among two hundred hookah smokers (n=200) before and after participating in hookah smoking.  Survey data was collected on the amount of time in minutes patrons spent inside the hookah bar, number of tobacco bowls smoked, number of charcoals used, number of cigarettes smoked and previous hookah smoking.

 Results:  A paired samples t-test was conducted using SPSS software to discern differences before and after the hookah bar . Significant increases were observed in exhaled CO, pulse CO-oximetry readings, and heart rate measured in beats per minute (bpm) with concurrent decreases in SpO2 and P.I. Mean increases of 60.8 ppm, 5.9% COHb, 3.8 bpm were recorded for changes in exhaled CO, pulse CO-oximetry, and heart rate, respectively. Mean decreases of oxygen saturation and perfusion index were noted as 0.5 mg/l and 0.4% (all p-values < .05).

Conclusion: Hookah smoking produces high levels of carbon monoxide, leading to concern of carbon monoxide toxicity, tachycardia and impaired oxygen delivery.  Health education and a need for policy implications and environmental regulation in hookah bars are needed to curb this public health threat.

Learning Areas:

Advocacy for health and health education
Occupational health and safety
Public health or related laws, regulations, standards, or guidelines
Public health or related public policy
Public health or related research
Social and behavioral sciences

Learning Objectives:
Describe the negative health effects of hookah smoking. Discuss public health policy considerations surrounding environmental controls in hookah bars.

Keyword(s): Public Health Policy, Tobacco Control

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I am a research assistant and have been extensively involved in this data collection and data analysis. I am working with Dr. Martinasek on this project.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.