142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition

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310658
Geospatial associations of traffic density and neighborhood stress with birth outcomes in Milwaukee, 2005-2010

142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (November 15 - November 19, 2014): http://www.apha.org/events-and-meetings/annual
Monday, November 17, 2014

Deborah L. Pasha James, PhD, BS, RN , Children's Environmental Health Sciences Core Center, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
Joyce Witebsky, MS , School of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
Frank C. Stetzer, PhD , Children's Environmental Health Sciences Core Center, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukiee, WI
Jeanne B. Hewitt, PhD RN , NIEHS-funded Children's Environmental Health Sciences Core Center P30 ES004184, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
Traffic density has recently been associated with a modest increased risk of preterm birth and low birth weight independent of many other known risk factors. This multilevel study used innovative methods to measure traffic burden and neighborhood stress and their effect on these birth outcomes. We examined these and other factors in a metropolitan area that is highly segregated by race and ethnicity. We estimated traffic density patterns by calculating normalized cumulative average daily traffic (CADT) in relation to the mother’s census block of residence at the time of birth. An index of food inaccessibility was used as an indicator of neighborhood-level stress. The index, created at the census tract-level, is comprised of distance to supermarket, access to a vehicle, and poverty. We examined the spatial associations between traffic density, neighborhood stress, and birth outcomes using ArcGIS (Version 10.1) software and SAS Version 9.4 for all other statistics. Electronic birth records were obtained for all singleton births in Milwaukee County that occurred between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010. There were 85,038 singleton births with gestational age and maternal street address available. Addresses were coded by the Wisconsin Vital Statistics Office to the census block level to maintain confidentiality. We depicted CADT and neighborhood stress across the county in relation to birth outcomes. The overall prevalence of preterm birth and low birth weight were 11.72% and 7.48%, respectively, but varied substantially by race-ethnicity and geography. Policy implications of the findings will be discussed.

Learning Areas:

Environmental health sciences
Epidemiology
Public health or related public policy
Public health or related research

Learning Objectives:
Explain the geographical distribution between traffic density and preterm birth or low birth weight in Milwaukee County. Describe the spatial relationship between a neighborhood stress index and preterm birth or low birth weight in Milwaukee County.

Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes, Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: Deborah Pasha James, PhD BS RN has extensive experience in public health nursing at both municipal and state levels. Her multidisciplinary PhD degree, the Built Environment and Public Health, included coursework in statistics, epidemiology, and GIS, as well as urban planning and civil engineering. She initiated and co-led the Milwaukee Safe Routes Campaign in which she introduced methods of interdisciplinary collaboration to promote the publicís health.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.