142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition

Annual Meeting Recordings are now available for purchase

Utilizing geographic information system (GIS) and statistical analysis to assess the relationship between the built environment and gastroschisis in the Inland Empire Region of Southern California

142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (November 15 - November 19, 2014): http://www.apha.org/events-and-meetings/annual
Tuesday, November 18, 2014 : 9:10 AM - 9:30 AM

Arti Desai, MPH , Department of Earth and Biological Sciences, Basic Sciences, School of Medicine Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA
Tara Billings, D.O. , The Perinatal Institute, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA
Bryan Oshiro, M.D. , Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA
Background: Gastroschisis, the most common congenital birth defect of the abdominal wall, is increasing in incidence on both a local and global scale. Purpose: The pathogenesis of gastroschisis remains unknown, but investigating the geographic distribution of this birth defect can be useful in exploratory etiologic research. Elucidating prenatal predictors of gastroschisis is key to improving diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on gastroschisis cases (n= 257) in order to determine rates during a ­14 year time period (1998- 2012) in the Inland Empire Region of Southern California. GIS was used to determine if geographic clustering was present utilizing zip codes from maternal residence. Results: Spatial analysis shows possible geographic clustering surrounding major transportation routes, suggesting environmental or chemical contaminants contributing to increased gastroschisis cases. Discussion: This study demonstrates the usefulness of the spatial scan statistics in exploratory etiologic research and can potentially lead to earlier prenatal diagnosis, improved clinical care, decreased morbidity, and potential to reduce the health disparity. Further study should be directed at specific geographic data and determining spatial-temporal association between gastroschisis case clusters and environmental toxins from archived EPA voluntary sites, Superfund sites, and current industries reporting permitted emission releases (air, soil, and water). Additionally, this contributes towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals for reducing child mortality rates and improving maternal health by 2015, by deepening our understanding of contributing risk factors linked to this birth defect through the use of geoinformation technology.

Learning Areas:

Basic medical science applied in public health
Biostatistics, economics
Clinical medicine applied in public health
Environmental health sciences
Public health biology

Learning Objectives:
Explain the importance of geospatial analysis in determining risk factors for birth defects. Discuss the use of technology in understanding temporal, spatial, geographic and environmental factors associated with perinatal and infant health.

Keyword(s): Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Birth Outcomes

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I am a PhD student in Biology focusing on Perinatal Biology and investing the temporal, spatial, environmental, biological, social, epidemiological, and obstetric factors contributing to gastroschisis and negative pregnancy outcomes. I have MPH with a concentration in Global Health with work related to community and minority health, cultural sensitivity and cross- cultural interactions.I have worked on projects related to environment and health and geospatial analysis.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.