142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition

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Anemia and depression in persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection

142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (November 15 - November 19, 2014): http://www.apha.org/events-and-meetings/annual
Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Krishna C. Poudel, PhD , Community Health Education, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA
Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar, PhD , Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan

Anemia and depression are commonly observed among people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Anemia can increase the risk of depression in people without HIV. Nevertheless, the association between anemia and depression among HIV- positive people has not been investigated yet. We assessed the cross-sectional association between anemia and depression in HIV-positive people.


A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 317 HIV-positive people (182 men and 135 women) aged 20-60 years residing in Kathmandu, Nepal. Anthropometric examinations were performed and information on medical history, life-style, alcohol, smoking, and anti-retroviral therapy were collected. Fasting blood samples were taken for haemoglobin, lipids, glucose, and micronutrient markers evaluations. The haemoglobin level below 12.0 g/dl in men and below 11.0 g/dl in women was defined as anemia. The Beck Depression Inventory-Ia method was used to measure depression, with a score of 20 or more indicating depression. Relationships were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment for life-style and HIV-related clinical confounding factors.


In  total, 33% of participants (men:31%; women:36%) were anemic and 26% (men:23%;women:28%) met the criteria for depression. The participants with anemia had a 2.2 fold higher odds of depression compared to those without anemia (p=0.005). Men and women with anemia had 2.1 and 2.4-fold higher odds of depression, respectively. The relationships remained tend to significant in men (p=0.06) and significant in women (p=0.03).


A risk of depression may be high among HIV-positive men and women with anemia. Further prospective study to confirm the role of anemia against depression among HIV-positive people is warranted.

Learning Areas:

Assessment of individual and community needs for health education
Public health or related research

Learning Objectives:
Describe the prevalence of anemia and depression in persons with HIV infection; Describe the association between anemia and depression in persons with HIV infection

Keyword(s): Depression, HIV/AIDS

Presenting author's disclosure statement:

Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I am one of the principal investigators of this study.
Any relevant financial relationships? No

I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.

Back to: 4280.0: People Living with HIV/AIDS